Individual title vs strata title: Know the differences


Looking to purchase any property? Do you know what type of ownership you’ll be receiving? Here, we detail the differences between an individual title and a strata title and how it will affect you as an owner.


© M R Fakhrurrozi | 123rf

Purchasing a piece of property isn’t as simple as buying goods in a convenience store. The type of property you purchase will determine the type of ownership you receive and ultimately, your rights.

From a legal perspective, ownership of a property is represented by a land title. Without it, you won’t be able to sell, transfer, or use it as collateral.

There are three types of land titles in Malaysia:

  • Master title
  • Individual title
  • Strata title

What is a master title?

A master title is an ownership document issued during the construction and development stage of a property. It is usually registered under the name of the proprietor and/or developer.

Separate units under this development will then be divided and sold into individual titles or strata titles. The common areas and shared facilities such as playgrounds, swimming pools, and outdoor areas will remain under the master title.

As this article is intended for you, as one of the purchasers of these separate units, we will only focus on the differences between an individual title and a strata title.

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What is an individual title?


© adired | 123rf

An individual title is an ownership document issued when you are the sole owner of an entire piece of land. This is usually reserved for landed properties such as semi-D houses, terrace houses, and bungalows.

In a nutshell, it lays out the extent of the property, various conditions that relate to that ownership, and the name of the person who now owns it.

Once the developer has completed construction of the wider development, an individual title can be applied for and issued to register ownership of this separate parcel of land and the relevant property on it.

The duration of your ownership will depend on the type of land:

  • If it’s a freehold property, the individual title that hosts the land and property belongs to you forever.
  • If it’s a leasehold property, the individual title is yours depending on the duration of the lease. For example, if the lease states a duration of 99 years, you would either have to return the land to the state government or pay a lease extension premium after this period ends.
  • If it’s a Bumi property, the individual title will depend on the terms of land (freehold or leasehold).

Want to learn about the difference between freehold vs leasehold properties? Read this: Freehold vs Leasehold: Which land title is better? And all about Bumi Lot

What is a strata title?

To answer this question, we first need to know what is strata. By definition, strata property is defined as a development or scheme where the building or land is carved out into different lots or ‘parcels’.

High-rise residences such as flats, apartments, condominiums, and townhouses are typical strata properties. However, landed homes in gated and guarded (G&G) communities may also be included in this category. An example of the latter is Desa ParkCity in Kepong.

A strata title is a separate individual title issued towards an individual unit of a strata property.

If this is still a little confusing, here’s a summary of who owns what in a strata development:

  • Each particular apartment/condo unit or parcel will belong individually to you and other unit owners. Each one of you will have your own strata title.
  • The land under the strata titles belongs to the owners or developers of the property.
  • Common areas such as the swimming pool, gym, elevators, and lounge are shared areas and do not belong to any individual strata unit holder. The maintenance and management of these common properties are covered by the Strata Management Act 2013 (SMA) and enforced by an officer known as the Commissioner of Buildings (COB).

Living in a strata property also means that you’re obligated to pay for sinking fund and maintenance fee. If you refuse to pay, the building management can enter your unit, auction your items and take legal action against you. You will also lose your rights to vote during the Management Corporation’s AGM

Read more: It’s important to know your rights as a strata property owner in Malaysia. Here, we list down ways to find out if your building is managed by the right management, common issues in high-rises and how to exercise your rights as a strata owner:  

When should the strata title be issued?


© tktktk | 123rf

Under the Strata Titles Act 1985, developers are required to apply for the strata titles on behalf of the purchasers. When the strata title is issued, the person who owns the property can use the property like how it is used for an individual title.

Furthermore, the Strata Titles (Amendment) Act 2013, states that strata titles are to be issued upon vacant possession (VP) of the property. Therefore, homeowners can expect to receive their strata titles, along with keys and other ownership documents, the moment that they are informed that VP can be obtained from the developer.

How do you check the issuance of a strata title?

It’s a simple process. Homeowners either call the local land authority, such as the Selangor Land and Mines Office, or conduct a quick search on the e-Tanah system using the master title details. They would usually have the details of the master title in their Sale and Purchase Agreement.

The strata title application process happens on the developer’s end, and therefore, not many homeowners would be able to track the various application stages. However, they may call the developer to ask if the developer has applied for the strata title and what stage is it at.

Why is it important to know the differences between an individual title and a strata title?

As we have detailed, each title results in a different type of ownership and set of rights. In the end, it all boils down to preference. To make it easier for you to make a comparison, we’ve summarised the differences between an individual title and a strata title below:

Individual title Strata title
Issuance Issued to landed properties. Issued to strata properties.
Type of homes Landed homes:

  • Terrace houses
  • Semi-D houses
  • Bungalows
Individual units of high-rises:

  • Flats
  • Apartments
  • Condominiums
  • Townhouses

May also include landed homes in gated and guarded (G&G) communities.

Ownership The buyer owns both the land and the property.
  • The buyer only owns the individual unit
  • The land is owned by the developer/owner
  • Common areas are shared
Registration Faster Slower
Responsibilities Individual responsibility. Includes obligations for shared maintenance.
Ease of finance Acquiring finance is easier and more accessible. Acquiring finance might be easy but by comparison, has more difficulties.

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